Getting started

You may be able to put off some home repairs for a while, but cracked, curled, or missing roof shingles require immediate attention. If neglected, they can lead to tens of thousands of dollars in water damage. Our tough tests simulated high winds, temperature extremes, hail and falling branches.

To see which roofing products can provide the best and longest protection for your home, we tested more than two dozen models of asphalt shingles, by far the most popular roofing material. We also tested four fake-slate shingles that convincingly imitate the real thing, and one metal roofing product. We pulled and pounded them for months to simulate the high winds, temperature extremes, hail, and falling branches that Mother Nature can dish out. And we exposed them to ultraviolet light to simulate the fading effects of sunlight. As we learned, performance can vary widely. On a sunny day, use binoculars to spot cracked, curled, or missing shingles, which are signs that the roof is near its end of life. Also check flashing around chimneys, skylights, and roof valleys, and the rubber boots around vents for cracks. If your roof is near the end of its life, our Ratings (available to subscribers) can provide enough top picks to give you plenty of options.

Some installers may push certain brands. Given the wide differences in overall quality that we found, we suggest you insist on the roofing that you want, even if you have to pay extra for a special order or hire a different installer.

Estimating costs

Suppliers sell roofing by the square, or 100-square-foot area. To estimate how much roofing you’ll need, multiply the overall length and width of each roof section in feet to measure its area and add 10 percent to allow for waste. Then divide by 100 to determine how many squares you’ll need. Figure on about 30 squares for a typical 2,300-square-foot house, plus $3,500 to $10,000 labor. Keep an extra bundle of shingles for minor repairs.

Think twice about layering

Where two layers of roofing are already in place, building codes typically require stripping the roofing down to the sheathing. Most roofs are strong enough to hold two layers. But installing some of the heavier laminated shingles over even a single layer may overstress some rafters and other structural parts. Another reason we recommend complete removal is so you don’t miss any rot, water damage, or insect infestation underneath. Figure on an extra $100 or more per 100 square feet to strip off and dispose of the old shingles.

If the roof is new or the old shingles are being removed, you’ll need new underlay (roofing felt) to create a moisture barrier between the roofing and the wood sheathing and rafters underneath. The sheathing may also have to be replaced if it’s damaged.

Check the details

Most roofing warranties include full reimbursement for materials and installation but only for a limited time. That usually doesn’t cover winds above 85 mph or faulty installation, so get a labor warranty from the installer. Save all receipts, invoices, and a bundle of shingles for repairs. And be sure roofing has the highest fire rating, Class A, as found on all roofing we tested.

Weighty options

Some of the best roofing could be too heavy for some homes. Some top-scoring laminated shingles weighed 100 to 200 pounds more per square than some others that scored almost as well. That could overstress rafters and other structural parts if you shingle over an existing layer.


When considering what type of roofing to install, weigh aesthetics against cost. You could spend an extra $30,000 for real slate or wood shakes–or you could get a similar look for much less.


Asphalt shingles are made of fiberglass sandwiched between asphalt and ceramic granules. Relatively light and easy to install, they are a good choice if you’re looking for style at a budget price. They may last 30 years or more, but they can be vulnerable to high winds. Asphalt roofing comes in two types: Laminated shingles, also known as “architectural” or “dimensional” shingles, are layered, and their thickness and depth make them look more like slate or wood shakes. Three-tab asphalt shingles, though similarly priced, are made in a single layer. They’re flatter and thinner than laminated shingles. As a group, they didn’t perform as well in our tests.

Fake slate roofing shingles

This composite material looks like the real thing, even close up. And it weighs only about as much as asphalt, so there’s no need to beef up the roof structure. Some fake slate may crack under impact or may fade. And it’s relatively costly, though not nearly as expensive to buy and install as slate.


Metal roofing comes in steel, aluminum, copper, and alloy strips, and in various shapes and textures. Copper is especially expensive. Over time, its surface acquires a greenish patina that some people find attractive. Advantages of metal include easy installation and ultra-light weight, about half that of asphalt. And of course metal roofing doesn’t burn. But it can be noisy in a rainstorm. Although the steel strips we tested dented easily, their textured surface hid minor damage quite well. Such roofing effectively reflects the sun’s rays, so it keeps your home cooler in summer–a benefit in hot climates. Make sure you hire a contractor who is familiar with the material.